Thursday, March 4, 2010

Developmental Physical Education

The factors that affect childhood growth and development are nutrition, exercise, illness, and lifestyle. These all play significant roles in the process of child physical growth.

The concepts of differentiation and integration. Differentiation is the gradual progression from the gross global (overall) movement patterns of infants to the more refined and functional movements of children as they mature. Integration refers to the coordinated interaction of opposing muscle and sensory systems.

Examples of early childhood development in motor characteristics growth proceeds at a slow but steady pace, with annual height gains of about 2 inches and annual weight gains of around 5 pounds. Children are active and energetic and would often rather run than walk. In Cognitive characteristics children at this stage are increasingly able to express their thoughts and ideas verbally. Also children learn the how and why of their actions through active play. In Affective characteristics during early childhood, children are generally egocentric and assume that everyone thinks that the way they do. As a result they often seem to be quarrelsome and exhibit difficulty in sharing and getting along with others. They are also learning to distinguish right from wrong and are beginning to develop a conscience. During a child’s later development in motor characteristics growth is slow but steady, especially from age eight to the end of this period. Also visual perceptual abilities are generally fully developed by the end of this period. During cognitive characteristics children’s attention is often very focused especially for activities that are of great personal interest. They are intellectually curious and are eager to know “why.” Also they have more sophisticated abstract cognitive abilities that are evident by the end of this period. As for affective characteristics children are adventurous and eager to be involved with friends in dangerous or secret activities. Children are responsive to authority and are critically conscious of what is fair.

A good sport skill would be basketball skills. An example of the skills used in stability would be pivoting, dodging, guarding, faking etc… An example of a loco motor movement skill would be running, sliding, leaping, jumping. Finally an example of manipulative movements would be passing, catching, shooting, dribbling.

Gallahue’s hour glass model describes different phases of motor development. The first phase is the specialized movement phase which includes lifelong utilization stage with ages ranging from 14 years old and up, next is the application stage with ages 11 to 13 years old, next up is the transition stage with kids ages 7 to 10 years old. The next phase would be fundamental movement phase which includes the mature stage with kids ages 6 to 7 years old, then you have the elementary stage with kids 4 to 5 years old, then you have the initial stage of kids 2 to 3 years old. The third phase is rudimentary movement phase which includes pre control stage with kids 1 to 2 years old, then reflex inhibition stage with kids ranging from birth to 1 years old. The final phase is the reflexive movement phase which includes information decoding stage with kids ages 4 months to 1 year old, followed by information encoding stage with kids in utero to 4 months old.

In the initial stage of developing a fundamental skill, children make their first observable and purposeful attempts at performing the task. This stage is characterized by crude, uncoordinated movements. The child may make valid attempts at throwing, catching, kicking, or jumping but major components of the mature pattern are missing and movements are either grossly exaggerated or inhibited. In the Elementary stage of fundamental movement skill development is typical of the performance of three to five year old children. This level of development appears to depend primarily on maturation. In this period between the initial and mature stages, coordination and rhythmical performance improve and children gain greater control over their movements. Movements at this stage still appear somewhat awkward and lacking in fluidity. Many adults are at this stage in basic activities such as throwing, striking and catching. In the mature stage of fundamental movement skill development is characterized by the integration of all the component parts of a pattern of movement into a well coordinated mechanically correct and efficient act. Performance improves rapidly. Children can throw farther, run faster, and jump higher at this stage.